The A to Z of Marketing

Welcome to the A to Z of Marketing.

Here we will take you through the A to Z of Marketing Terms, Terminology and Definitions.

A Terms

Above the fold

This term refers back to days of print newspapers where the primary or leading story was positioned above the horizontal fold across the newspaper – this was prime placement because of how newspapers were stacked and delivered and guaranteed it was the first item seen; in web terms, it means copy or images that appear on a page before the user needs to scrolllibrary marketing terms above the fold example


A highly useful tool when developing your business through social media as it allows you to gain a better understanding of your audience. Each social media platform has their own form of analytics (some more detailed than others) as well as the most known – Google analytics, which is ideal for a more in depth analysis of your website.


Also known as “target market,” your audience is the group of people you’re trying to reach with your message. This is usually broader than just your customers, and includes other prospective buyers.
To market effectively, you need to know who your audience is. Otherwise, how can you appeal to them?
You can use social listening to learn more about your target audience. Social media platforms provide neat character snapshots of their users. This information gives marketers a clear picture of the kinds of people interested in their products.
Social listening also fuels your content strategy. Find common pain points for social users, and provide information to solve their problems.


Automation Tools, usually software, are tools that help you with streamlining tactics, workflows and measurement of marketing, to save time and money. Automation tools are often behavior-based to trigger other actions, instead of you manually sending emails one-by-one after you learn of an action or intent. Many marketing automation systems deal heavily with email marketing, but others incorporate social media and other website actions.

Automation is also about the planning and strategy of designing marketing workflows so that they CAN be automated to degrees. Automation tools are often directed at large SME or Corporate companies with larger budgets.

e.g. your system automatically sends emails based on certain activity on certain pages of your website, or the system automatically sends one set of email messages to new list subscribers, another set to those who read a certain ebook, and another set to those who purchased a particular product.

Automation tools/software:  Pardot, Silverpop, Marketo, Act-on, HubSpot, Buffer, Hootsuite


Part of an email service that allows you to send out pre-scheduled messages to your email list, often in a series of emails. You decide the order and the frequency, they send automatically based on a trigger event (e.g. signing up for your email list triggers 1st email at day 1, another a week later, a third a week after that – no matter when someone signs up). Autoresponders are usually a paid feature of an email marketing service.

Email marketing term autoresponder example


The degree to which a person can easily recognize and identify (unprompted) an organisation or brand and link it to the products or services that it offers, to its marketing campaigns and/or to its tagline or slogan; sometimes referred to as ‘top of mind awareness’, or ‘brand awareness.’

B Terms

B2B (Business to Business)

B2B is used to describe marketing for products and services whose main customers are other businesses and not private individuals (consumers). B2B marketing may use some of the same tools and tactics as those who directly market to individual consumers (B2C) but also some tools and tactics may differ.

B2B marketing segments strategy

B2B Content Marketing Segmentation Strategy

B2C (Business to Consumer)

B2C is used to describe marketing campaigns that promote products or services directly to individual consumers.


Incoming links to your website from another website.

Backlinks are still considered important in SEO, but only if coming from high quality sites; also called ‘inbound links’

Example of backlinks in the author/bio box and article

Example of backlinks in the author/bio box and article


A point of reference comparison or measurement on some set of standards or metrics, often used for comparison between similar organisations to yours or two different tactics in an activity.


Writing informative, relevant articles and blog posts is perfect for adding content to your social media, but also a great way to drive people to your website. Posts of 500 words + helps push you up the rankings on Search Engines, because you are regularly updating the content on your site.


The main text in a piece of content, which provides details, benefits, features or other necessary information; more detailed and longer than headlines or subheads. Can refer to text in a blog post, in a paid ad, in a flyer or any other text-based marketing piece.

Bounce rate

Percentage of visitors to your website / web page who navigate away from that page after viewing only that page (you want as low a bounce rate as you can get) as this rate can massively affect your SERP position.


Developing a distinct and unique brand allows customers to recognise your business quickly, which is mightily important in the noise of your audience’s social media feeds. Aim to stand out from other businesses by adding a consistent colour scheme and tone of voice that conveys your business values and personality.

Brand awareness

This is a measure of how many people know about your company and its products. In other words, how well-known you are.
Raising brand awareness is a key goal for many companies. It’s also one of the chief reasons they invest in digital marketing. Clients want agencies to make their brand a household name.

There are countless strategies to increase brand awareness. Most marketers use a combination of the above, plus any number of other tactics.


Film or video footage that is not part of the original or main script or shooting plan or doesn’t feature whomever is talking on-camera; often used to give context, sense of place or surroundings, actions, crowds or visual information while a narrator or voice-over gives additional info; b-rolls ‘shows, not tells’.


An easy to use social media automation platform allowing you to schedule your social media content across your platforms. The site allows you to have a free account to manage one Twitter, Facebook (page or profile), and LinkedIn account with up to 10 updates in your scheduler.


The ‘about the author’ information, often at the end of an article or blog post – especially on sites other than your own. Contains a link back to your website or a call-to-action link for readers. Also called a ‘bio box’, ‘author box’ or ‘resource box’.

example of an author or bio box

C Terms

Call to Action (CTA)

All marketing activities should have some kind of CTA – asking the reader to do something. You could invite them to sign up for your email newsletter, to go to page to donate to your nonprofit campaign, click a link for a product or service you use and recommend [use your Amazon Affiliate link], use the button for your online appointment scheduler or click a link to buy something. The point of marketing is to inspire action – so content should have directions on what action to take.register-now-red

E.g. “call now”, “view now”, “buy now”, “follow me”, “sign up here”, “learn more now”, “download this”, “sign up to participate”, “donate now”, “sign up here for free webinar”, “get your free card now”, “speak out”, “join us now”, “Volunteer today” “view” “read” etc.

Edmonton Public Library - Calls to Action on Support page

Edmonton Public Library – Calls to Action on Support page

  • CTA is a must have feature in Sociak Media Marketing, that allows people to take quick steps in order to ‘see more’ or ‘get in touch’. These can feature on your social media posts as well as frequently throughout your website. Making your online presence as user friendly as possible will increase customer satisfaction as it is a direct route to the cont ent they want to see.


Canva is a really useful and easy to use / user friendly graphic design website, which allows you to create unique graphics tailored to your brand. There’s plenty of free imagery available for you to adapt making it easy for you to create great content for your marketing requirments.

Case Study

For content marketing context, share the story of one of your clients, customers, patrons or reader of your blog. Tell other potential customers about their experience using your services, programs or advice.


Can refer to types of media, e.g. TV, print, radio, internet, social media and even the specific platforms or sources themselves; or could mean the method or manner of distributing goods, products – linking a producer to end customer.

Click Through Rate (CTR)

CTR is the number of people who clicked a link compared with those who just saw the link and took no action. The CTR is commonly used as a metric for email marketing (% clicked link in email = signal of real engagement), or for an online ad (% who clicked on ad vs. saw ad).  Clicks ÷ Impressions = CTR  [if 100 people see the link and 10 click it, your CTR = 10%]


The printed (sometimes means electronic) information used to explain or give background on a company or organisation and to help a person buy a product or service or make a donation; e.g. brochures, information sheets, leaflets, brochures, business cards, print (or email) newsletters, fact sheets, press kits, media kits, staff or team member biographies, websites, and annual reports

Org Fact sheet:examples of printed marketing collateral

Used to help Employees, Key stakeholders or media members to learn important facts about the organisation at quick glance; inc founding or history information, key dates, location(s), images of key buildings or facilities, names and brief background of key staff, founders, historical figures in organisational history, key photos, contact info; usually all on 1 attractively designed page, ready to hand/send out or download as PDF.

Product/Service Fact sheet

Keep one for each key service or major product; inc function or value, key benefits to users/customers, distinctive features that set it apart, comparison to similar products/services, statement on quality or reliability, pricing, and/or availabilityBoulder Public Library press kit marketing example

Press/Media Kit

All the information a reporter or media member needs to know about your organisation at a glance; they can be collected in 1 place or page on your website, available to download, or printed physically and sent on request or handed out at events; Inc: logo and appropriate way to display it; company/org fact sheet, key product/service fact sheet(s), copy of recent articles or press mentions of your org; a current press release; card or contact information.

Colour Codes

Also known as ‘colour models’; because we need more precise ways to consistently represent and display the same colour in web and printed materials, each colour has a set of codes (and because ‘blue’ could be anything between ‘sky’, ‘ocean’ or ‘denim’); if you are getting material printed, you may be asked for CMYK, if it’s purely on the web, use RGB or Hex.

A good site to find hex codes for all variations of a colour (, find or translate codes across models (, select colour palettes (Coolors).

CMYK – ‘Process colour’ – representing the 4 colours in physical printing ink, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (Black) – for paint, pigment, inks where you add various % of colours and if you keep adding you’d eventually get black (but in practice it comes out muddy, hence the use of the forth color, K (pure black).

e.g Black = 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 1.00       Red =  0.00, 1.00, 1.00, 0.00  Magenta =  0.00, 1.00, 0.00, 0.00

marketing color codes CMYK

RGB – A projected light colour system; represents colours with 3 separate numbers from 0 to 255, one number each to represent R(red), G(green) and B(blue) values that make up a color; most computer devices and screen use RGB colours.

e.g. Black = (0, 0, 0)    Red = (255, 0, 0)         magenta (255, 0, 255)

marketing color codes RGB Hex magentaHex Codes (hexadecimal codes)

Computer friendly, 6-character alpha-numeric combination beginning with # to also represent the spectrum of values of Red, Green and Blue; hex codes are used in ‘legacy’ HTML and CSS;

        e.g. Black = #000000              Red = #FF0000           Magenta = #ff00ff

Hex color code explanation

Competitive analysis

Monitoring competitors is an essential business practice.  Popular Quote – “if you want to win – whether that’s winning a war or winning over a customer – you need to know who you’re up against.”
Tracking competitors tells you:

  • What s working for them, and how you can beat it
  • New features they are launching
  • When they are receiving major publicity
  • What customers love most about their products

These days, competitive analysis is both easy and effective. Social media has made important conversations public, and there are plenty of great benchmarking tools. You can easily watch your competition interact with customers, manage crises, and even track their SEO performance. You would be crazy not to spy on them.


Any piece of information you share with readers – for instructional, educational, entertainment or persuasive purposes. It can be long or short, text or visual, audio, video, etc. Blog posts, white papers, slide shows, videos, podcasts, short ebooks, social media posts and infographics are all types or formats of content.

Content Management System (CMS)

A web application or framework that allows users to easily develop, add, edit, and manage website content via a common user interface and can support multiple users working in the same system, collaboratively (files, media, articles, other digital content). E.g. Drupal, Joomla, WordPress, Wikis, Moodle, Rainmaker etc.


Someone taking a desired action (doesn’t always refer to a customer or a purchase); actions could include: subscribing to an email, download something, donating, signing up for an event, watch video, send follow-up contact form, initiate chat, send email, etc.

Conversion Rate

The number of visitors / users / leads who ‘convert’ into or through a desired action out of the total number of visitors / users / leads who visited a web page, saw an ad, visited a landing page, etc.

Example – how many visitors filled out an email opt-in form vs. the number who visited the page (or clicked the link to open the opt-in).

Tip: Conversion rates tend to be low (<10% is common) but can vary and increase depending on factors like what’s being offered, good headlines, emotional appeals, clear benefits, social proof or on-page graphics.

Copy Writing

Writing in order to promote something and inspire action – for a business, organisation, nonprofit, person, opinion or idea. Copywriting’s goal is persuasion, through compelling, engaging, targeted writing.


Text and/or writing and images etc, usually for marketing purpose; can be headline copy, body copy, footer copy, disclaimer copy, policy copy, sales copy, etc.

Cost Per Action (CPA)

An online advertising model where the person / business buying the advertising pays only for the specified action (i.e. a click, an impression, a sale).

Cost Per Click (CPC)

An online ad model where the advertiser pays a pre-set amount whenever that ad is clicked.

Google PPC paid ads example

Cost Per Thousand (CPM)

The cost to reach 1,000 people via a specific advertising channel or medium (1000 viewers on TV, 1000 page views, etc); or cost per thousand impressions

Crowd Sourced

Usually referring to content; when you let your customers, users or other 3rd party subject experts create quality content for you to share on your site or other social platforms under your brand or organisational name. Content may come from a contest, as part of testimonials, or guest posts. Always give credit fairly to all contributors, including social media handles. (see also User Generated Content)


Collecting, organising and sharing already published content (usually from a 3rd parties) via a blog, social media or email newsletters.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Refers to the management of existing clients.  CRM Software also refers to the software that is designed to help you to keep track of contacts, leads and customers at different phases of interaction with your organisation; system holds all contact information, details of meetings, personal info (birthdays, anniversaries, hobbies, interests – anything to help you personalise your contact or products with potential customers). Some systems include social networking information and profiles. Examples include: Nimble, Insightly, Salesforce, Zoho, Infusionsoft, Act!, SugarCRM, Pipedrive, HubSpot CRM, Contactually, Nutshell

marketing CRM software example Insightly

Sneak peek inside an Insightly account.

D Terms


Personal info about users or customers (usually collected, studied or used in marketing in the aggregate – i.e. not identifiable to a specific individual); e.g. age, gender, occupation, education level, post code, number of people in household, marital status, group affiliations.


Creating unique posts for your website allows you to show how your business differs from the rest. When it comes to thinking about the layout of your website or how you want your business to look, think about what you like about other companies. Ensure it’s easy to use and it directs those who come into contact with your efforts to where you want them to be. Remember, we are visual creatures, but don’t like to be overwhelmed with endless paragraphs of writing.


How your products, goods, services or cause are delivered to your users or customers; also method your products or services are marketed, promoted circulated into hands of users; Channel of Distribution = network or system of resources, organisations that are connected to bring a good or service from beginning producer into hands of end consumer, completing a marketing cycle.

Distribution channels

In this section, we’re talking about marketing distribution channels. This means the ways in which digital marketing messages are delivered: social media, email, blogs, forums, etc.
As technology evolves, the list of digital marketing distribution channels changes quickly. In 2013, that list didn’t even include now-staple platforms like Snapchat, Periscope, and Slideshare.
In other sections of this post, we’ve described social media channels like Whisper and YouTube, and new technologies like virtual and augmented reality. Each of these is significant to marketers because of how they deliver a message.
Understanding them is important, because your content will be different for each. Email content will be different from your blog posts, which will be different from your homepage copy.
Even different social media platforms require different approaches:

  • Twitter: The sweet spot for Twitter posts lies between 70 and 100 words. Cornell University made this funky A/B tester to tell you which of your two draft tweets is more likely to be retweeted.
  • Instagram: You can post pictures, quotes and facts, because they’re universal and make us all feel something.
  • Facebook: Facebook users prefer the shortest content, around 40 characters.

Identify the best distribution channels for your marketing, and create messages to suit them.

Direct Mail (DM)

Targeted advertising, fundraising or news delivered to prospects, customers, users or patrons via postal mail

example of library marketing direct mail from Charlotte Mecklenburg Library

Example of direct mail marketing.

E Terms

Editorial Calander

A publishing schedule for your content that helps you organise, plan and coordinate what you are creating, publishing and sharing when and where. A calendar might include: timed themes for your content (April is Library Appreciation month; February will feature ‘best huddle with blanket and fireplace reads’, Wednesdays will be website tips; share archives or local history on #TBT, #Caturday, etc ); topics for blog posts; days you send emails, plans for each social media platform including links and promotions; what events you will promote on which channels, etc. You can keep it as simple as a Word doc or Excel chart, a team Google calendar, or use free and paid tools online.

There are sample calendars online as well as tools to help plan and execute.

Basic sample nonprofit marketing editorial calendar

A very basic nonprofit editorial calendar – Network for Good.

Email Marketing

Targeted communication to users or customers for promotion or sharing of news about products, services or causes via email; email marketing is a more technologically savvy, cost effective and trackable form of direct mail marketing; true email marketing always involved wanted communications, not spam – users or customers have opted-in to receiving the message(s).


Although they may not be for all brands, they have become increasingly popular in digital marketing as they are a great way to convey your tone or humour through your posts. On Twitter alone it’s been shown that the use of emojis increased engagement by 25.4%– just make sure they’re necessary and carefully selected.

Engagement or Engagement Rate

Popular social media metric to describe or measure amount of interaction between accounts. Shares, RTs,  ♥ or comments can indicate an interaction, a level beyond just reading your posts, Tweets or pictures.

Event Marketing

Promotional strategy linking a business or company to a specific event (festival, fair, sports event, competition, music event, trade show, conference); often includes sponsorship of some aspect of the event, but not always – having a booth or physical presence at an event is ‘event marketing’. This does not mean ‘how to market an event’ but that can also be referred to as Event marketing – that would be part of your overall plan or part of a promotion.

Examples of event marketing from ALA, SLA, AIIP, STC and NY Bike Expo

Evergreen Content

A gardening analogy to describe types of content – ‘Annuals’ are posts or content that is time-restricted or time-based, meant to bloom and last a short time; ‘Evergreen’ content gives good info and value no matter when a reader finds or sees that content, it is timeless and lasts and doesn’t have a season.  Evergreen content tends to get higher search engine rankings for your site, higher traffic, and can be a page you refer to internally for some time. This is content that will help you for a long time after you publish it.

Example: This page you are reading with the glossary of key marketing terms is ‘Evergreen’ because most of these concepts will not change over time and it should stay useful even if you find it a year after it was written. Alternately, when I post about an upcoming workshop or a conference I just attended or give a trends report for a given year, that’s ‘annual’ or short-lived content.

e.g. Resource lists, lists of great curated content on a specific topic; FAQs; histories or timelines; how-to-guides on topics that do not change frequently.

F Terms


With over 60 million active business pages using this platform, Facebook is an undeniably huge player in the social media world and a greatly recommended tool in getting your business on the map.

Focus Group(s)

A way to gather qualitative research about users or customers by gathering them in a group, physically or virtually, and asking guided questions or exercises; learn more about behaviours, values, beliefs, desires or reactions to concepts; in recruiting, often preferable to have multiple, varied, homogeneous groups to encourage free discussion and then compare results across groups; focus groups are small by nature and can gather more in-depth information than a questionnaire or other methods; data is not always representative across all users or customers, unless well-designed with variety of users or customers, or desired users / customers.

marketing technique focus group discussion notes

Focus groups may include brainstorming, concept testing, workflow mapping.

Four P’s of Marketing (or 7 P’s of Marketing)

4 P’s of Marketing: Product (or Service), Price, Place (i.e. distribution), Promotion


The item / service that satisfies a customer / user demand and all its features and benefits


What customer / user exchanges for the product – setting or changing price is part of overall business and marketing strategy; for nonprofits this might include a membership fee, prices on items sold for fundraising, the time or resources given up in exchange for a service, the action requested by a cause, the other ‘costs’ for using a service or attending an event (e.g. hard to get transportation to the library or an event, so ‘cost’ too high to attend).


How and where the user / customer gets the product; marketing via changes in Place might include adding a new location, increasing hours, adding a store at a seasonal location, taking services to community, live-streaming an in-person event or changing your website, adding a donation button online.


The methods (channels) of communication to a user/customer about the product and its price and place (i.e. tactics; advertising, public relations, sales, sales promotions, etc.).

7 P’s of Marketing – Some marketing experts and teachers have expanded this to more Ps and to cover services and service-based organisations:


(That service was performed or delivered),


(The employees delivering the service and way they do so), 


(Systems that affect delivering service).

The 7Ps of Marketing; the Marketing Mix components

The 7Ps of Marketing; the Marketing Mix components


The people who have actively chosen to continuously see the content you post on your pages. The more followers the merrier from a marketing point of view!


The process or ‘journey’ of a prospective user / customer / donor through phases or levels of commitment, from a lack of awareness to greater awareness and trust, towards a purchase, donation or otherwise becoming a customer or user.

The wide, top of the funnel is where someone has the least awareness of your organisation or its services and the lowest level of commitment; the narrow, bottom of the funnel represents the smaller number of people who are aware of the organisation, become its fans and have made a greater commitment. Marketing actions are taken to bring people through the funnel, with the understanding that not everyone filters down to the bottom or tip.

Different marketing strategies and tactics may be used at different stages of the funnel.

e.g. Top of Funnel = build awareness, educate; get people to follow you on social media or Like a post; Middle of the Funnel = more engagement, deeper connections and trust; encourage small (often non-cash) donations, sign-up for a newsletter, interact more on social media; Bottom of the Funnel = aware, engaged, believe in your mission and ready to take further steps to support you or use services; meaningful investment of time or money, volunteering, event registrations, monetary donations

marketing funnels examples


The number of times a person, household or other member of a target audience is exposed to media or paid ads over a specific time period; in paid advertising it’s considered necessary for a customer to be exposed to ad multiple times in a campaign for it to be considered effective, but there are also caps because too high a frequency is unhelpful.

G Terms


A way of detecting a website visitor’s location and using that info to serve targeted, location-specific messages, ads, coupons or content

e.g. Apple’s iBeacons giving info + CTA, ‘location aware’ connection to user’s mobile device;  mobile advertisers using GPS in smartphones along with apps (e.g. MLB’s Ballpark app lets you ‘check-in’ when physically present at a stadium, verified by GPS, and be sent coupons for team-specific merchandise, or codes for food at that ballpark; an iBeacon attached to a statue outside library or museum tells who statue is of + directs inside for more info, check out books on subject of statue)


Concrete, specific, short term measurement of desired achievement; what you are pursuing in order to meet an objective

  • increase in-person attendance at story hours by 10% vs. same time year ago
  • increase library card sign-up among 18-24yr olds by 20%
  • increase summer reading participation by 20%
  • increase circulation and use of materials by 10% among current library card holders and regular users


When you hear Search Engine, which empire do you automatically think of? Whilst they might be the most popular search engine, they also offer some helpful tools such as analytics and Google Calendar, ideal for keeping you organised with your social media posts and reviewing their success.

Guerilla Marketing

A marketing tactic or technique considered to be ‘unconventional’, usually a low cost initiative designed for maximum impact / results for minimum effort / resources.

H Terms


Hashtags are pretty much everywhere now, but they started on Twitter to bundle conversations around a common theme. By using a hashtag in a social post, you signify to others that you are intentionally joining a certain conversation (as opposed to merely using a common word). This makes it easier to find your posts.
Marketers should take advantage of hashtags by using them strategically. This includes using them around specific campaigns, live events, or for humor.
Identify relevant hashtags and leverage them to your advantage. Topical hashtags can boost your tweet’s visibility.


The attention grabbing sentence at the top of a page (webpage or content piece) to draw a reader in and entice to read further.

Important for all web pages, sales pages, blog posts, articles and even emails. Headlines often appear in a different font style and larger size, bolded or otherwise made to stand out.

headline subhead copy examples

Heat Map

A graphical representation (usually with shades of a colour or warm-to-cool spectrum) to show varying degrees of a single measure; on websites, a heat map can show concentrations of clicks or eye-tracking.

Examples of heatmap tracking on website

I Terms


Make sure any graphics or imagery you post on Social Media is of high quality and fits in within the ratios of your platform’s margins.  When adding images to your website you should keyword describe and name your images in order for the images to rank in the search engines.


One instance of an online ad being ‘displayed’ (doesn’t guarantee it was seen).

Inbound Marketing

Often used interchangeably with ‘content marketing, but they are NOT exactly the same [Content Marketing is generally a type of Inbound Marketing]; Inbound draws visitors, potential customers, prospective patrons towards you, IN to your organisation vs. ‘traditional’ or old-school advertising which pushes its message OUT. Inbound is about attracting visitors, being easily found online, having visitors come back to your site over and over, usually with high quality, helpful content.

HubSpot’s Inbound Marketing and Lead Nurturing Model – main stages = Awareness -> Evaluation -> Purchase

HubSpot Inbound Marketing Cycle

Outbound Marketing

Marketing messages pushed outwards at masses of consumers, with little input from consumers on the actual message(s); ‘traditional’ TV, radio and magazine ads, cold-calling, ‘junk mail’, trade shows, billboards, purchased lists.


Person whose views or platform can influence the attitudes and behavior of others, including making decisions, purchases or donations.

Influencer marketing

Traditional marketing has lost its pull. Factors like social media and new technology make reaching a passive audience more difficult than ever.
That’s why marketers rely on digital power users to boost their messaging. “Influencers are making marketing personal again,”. They place products in front of new, interested buyers who trust them.
Look for industry leaders whose word will boost your brand’s reach. Your influencers need to be:

  • Relevant to you and your KPIs. So do their audience.
  • Active on social media. Otherwise they aren’t much help.
  • Influential, obviously. Find examples of them shaping others’ decisions.
  • Good people. You don’t need a negative person associated with your company.

Even if they’re good people, they likely won’t do this for nothing. You need to offer something.
Many brands can afford to pay. This has caused a sharp increase in the number of influencers on blogs and Instagram, especially.
If you can’t pay, you can crete S4S (share for share) partnerships, where you offer to share another user’s content, in exchange for them sharing yours. This puts your work in front of a whole new audience.
These agreements can be built across multiple platforms. For example, ask them to write a guest post for your blog, and in return you share 10 of their posts on social media.


Visual content that uses graphs, icons, arrows or other elements to present statistics, a timeline or a story in a visual way.

instagram vs facebook marketing infographic

Should brands embrace Instagram vs Facebook – Infographic snip from Selfstartr.


Instagram allows their 1 billion (and growing) active users to share photos and videos from their accounts. A great platform to utilise, particularly if your business produces a visual product or service. Increasing in popularity for the food and beverage industry.

Integrated Marketing

Process / system / framework that emphasises that planning and connecting all marketing elements is preferred; to ensure all the points of contact and communication between a brand and a consumer are coordinated and consistent over place and time (regardless of individual media channels).


Something offered to reward or motivate action by sellers, users, consumers, donors; bonuses, promotions, contests, competitions or games, give-backs, freebies, premiums, sales promotions, pass-along deal; can be coupons, discounts, prizes, money, virtual or physical items.

J Terms


“Jacking” means to use something to your own advantage. The word comes from “hijacking,” and includes practices such as memejacking, pagejacking, or newsjacking.
For example, memejacking means using an internet meme’s popularity to boost your own marketing message. HubSpot says this is “a great way to create some fun, engaging content that shows off your brand’s personality and likeability.”
Memejacking is a popular digital marketing tactic
Then there’s newsjacking. Piggy-back off trending topics to make your content easier to find. And people are more likely to share newsworthy content.

Jacking can also have negative connotations. Practices like pagejacking and clickjacking are common hacks used to drive large numbers of undeserved traffic to a website.
Another example is launch jacking. When people hear a new product’s about to launch, they buy URLs and quickly produce content associated with it. Because they are early to these keywords, their pages rank highly on Google, and they get a lot of traffic.
Imagine if Apple, Snapple, and Scrabble teamed up to create “Apple Snapple Scrabble.” You quickly buy, and write a review. If you’re early enough and you’ve optimised your page, you could rank in the top 10.
Suppose you’re a competitor and the review is actually negative. You conclude that “Apple Snapple Scrabble” is a waste of time, and you direct people to a better product, “PokéMonopoly.” You’ve just launch jacked another product to promote your own.


That language, set of terms, acronyms, created words and more that are special and specific to a profession, niche, trade or group. Words that members of the group know and understand (or they come to know), but which are confusing to the ordinary public or non-members. These are often technical terms, industry-specific words, or words whose meaning is different for the ingroup vs. others.  Libraries and librarianship have TONS of jargon terms – let’s be really careful about what we say or how we describe our products or services with words that don’t have the same meaning, weight, accessibility or understanding with our patrons and users.


Joining more social media platforms or groups can help you promote your business and communicate with a wider range of people. Remember to engage!

K Terms

Keyword Phrase(s)

A phrase that someone enters in a search engine to try and find something they are looking for. Website creators and owner attempt to build pages to best rank for these phrases in search results by writing content that features a phrase and words related to that phrase.

Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s)

Key performance indicators are a way of measuring how well your business is performing by setting goals and measuring certain results.

L Terms

Landing Page

A single web page where one sends traffic with a goal of encouraging a single action; it doesn’t have additional navigation, links or ways for someone to easily leave without completing the desired action. Goal usually involves capturing a visitor’s information in exchange for offer of something of value for purpose of email marketing, follow-up contacts.

E.g. A webinar registration page, an email opt-in offering an ebook, a form to be contacted for an appointment, a page selling an ebook, a page for collecting registrations for a free event, a form to collect signatures for a petition, etc. Only 1 single goal per landing page.

IntelliCraft's library marketing landing page


The physical design or format of a physical piece of marketing material, showing the placement of artwork / images, header, headlines, subheads, body copy, contact info and any other graphical elements; particularly used to describe printed ads, pieces of direct mail, publications, and other physical collateral (brochures, flyers, business cards, post cards, bookmarks, folders).

marketing website layout UX user experience design

Lead Magnet

An enticing, useful, educational, helpful piece of content or free resource offered to visitors in exchange for contact information (usually a name + email address); content is emailed or digitally delivered after completion of the form, and further follow-up takes place.


Stages or phases to describe the evolution of the relationship between you and your audience, users or customers.

There are various lifecycles discussed among marketers and marketing experts.  E.g. the Product Lifecycle is a theory that all products and brands experience following sequence: Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline

Marketing Cycles:

Marketing Cycle

e.g.  John Jantsch’s  hourglass marketing model with  Know -> Like -> Trust,  Try -> Buy -> Repeat -> Refer

John Jantsch DuctTape Marketing Hourglass Marketing cycle


Unlike other social media platforms LinkedIn is predominantly for businesses, used by 562 million people.  It is currently one of the best platforms for getting free organic reach.


Livestreaming video is having a moment, thanks to apps like Periscope. It lets you broadcast video on a public platform for anyone to watch, or invite selected users for private broadcasts.
It isn’t the first app of its kind – Meerkat is a popular competitor, YouTube offers it, and Facebook has released a feature for it. Before those, there was the classic Ustream and now Blab, which combines up to four streams at once.
Livestreaming as one of the key social marketing tools for 2020. “Technology and audience have caught up to each other. Now we’re expecting to consume content that is live, that is raw, that is unfinished, and we’re tuning in by the masses.”

Longtail (Search)

A search phrase with three or more words, usually a key term and additional descriptors.

They are more specific than a single or two-term search and if your content matches these longer phrases the visitor who follows that longtail search term to your site is more qualified and more interested in what your site offers. More and more searches online use longtail phrases, so it’s useful for your web pages and posts to use the same types of long phrases that your audience will search on.

illustration of longtail keyword in graph

Longtail graph

e.g. a shorter (and more competitive search phrase) = “European cruise”; a longtail search = “single mum European cruise”, or “single parents cruise Europe”

shorter = “organic coffee”, longtail = “organic coffee vs. regular coffee”, or “why pick organic coffee” or “is organic coffee better for you”

shorter = “summer reading selections”; longtail = “summer reading selections cardiff schools”, “summer reading selections cardiff library”, “what should my child read for summer reading”

marketing term longtail keyword public library hours

Example of longtail – Google Suggest offers even longer search phrases

M Terms

Marketing Mix

The mix of tactics, channels, variables that an organisation uses to achieve desired business and marketing goals; see the 4 (or 7) Ps model  [the combo of price, product, promotion, place]; the mix includes what to budget to each variable, amount of time / resources, how to measure, and timing.

Meme Jacking

Meme jacking means using an internet meme’s popularity to boost your own marketing message. HubSpot says this is “a great way to create some fun, engaging content that shows off your brand’s personality and likeability.”
Memejacking is a popular digital marketing tactic


A system or set of measurements to help quantify marketing elements or characteristics; e.g. SEO metrics to measure include: overall traffic, search engine traffic, conversions, top traffic-driving keywords, keyword rankings; e.g. social media metrics include impressions, engagement, reshares, followers.

Twitter engagement metrics analytics

Twitter Engagement Metrics

Mobile Marketing

There are now more searches on mobile devices than desktops / laptops, responsive web design is key, your organisation and site need to be easily found and seen on mobile devices – so it makes sense your marketing needs to work on mobile too. Mobile marketing refers to optimising your messages, visuals, site, emails and more for viewing on mobile devices, being seen and sending promotions in time and location sensitive ways.


Monitoring lets you hear everything that’s said online. You can follow keywords and receive alerts whenever they are used.
Marketers use monitoring for a variety of reasons, from brand tracking, to social media monitoring, to finding influencers, to spying on competitors. The aim is the same: to catch conversations you would otherwise never have known about.
The easiest way to do this is with a great monitoring tool. These monitoring tools let you follow keywords across social media, blogs, and the rest of the web. They put all this information in a single place, saving you time and effort.


Interacting with a customer via campaigns designed to appear simultaneously across multiple channels to promote goods or services; increasing the number of channels increases the odds that a brand or organisation will reach a consumer in their preferred method or channel; direct channels = organisation proactively reaches out to customer via a physical location, catalog, direct mail; indirect channels = websites, social media, email, text messaging, mobile marketing.

N Terms


Piggy-backing on, or taking advantage of, a breaking news event or hot item / trend in a news cycle (overall or in your given industry, niche, field, local market) to insert your brand / organisation into the news stream. Requires fast action and treading carefully to not negatively affect brand.


Either printed or online via email, a digest or collection of organisational news, tips or noteworthy info to share with a specific audience; newsletters can be free, paid, available to the public or to a limited membership / audience; generally a quicker production and distribution than a magazine, less formal than a newspaper, different from a blog post.

Want to see an example?

IntelliCraft Research marketing insights newsletter example

IntelliCraft Research marketing insights newsletter example (click above to join!).


Specialisation, segmentation or subset of an overall market or audience; a small, specific, well-defined portion of the total population; marketers create niches by using research to find the needs or wants that are not being addressed or met by other brands or organisations and developing a way to identify similar members of that niche and deliver their goods or services to them; ‘a big fish in a small pond’ strategy.


A website and SEO related term; it tells SEs (search engines) NOT to count that link or pass on its ‘trust’ factors to the destination URL By not passing on ‘credit’ or ‘trust’ you can avoid associations with potentially spammy sites, sites with questionable content (but that you might still have a good reason to link to, or show as an example of something), or to not run afoul of certain webmaster guidelines.

e.g., for site owners that do not want to give full “follow” credit to links posted by users in their forums or blog comments; e.g. you need to show an example of a ‘what not to do’ and link goes to a questionable site, which you don’t want affecting your rankings or SEO.


Notifications are alerts about your online activities. These alerts could be anything from a new follower to a direct message. You can manage which applications provide you with particular notifications through the platform preference settings.

Non Profit Marketing

Marketing of a product, service, cause for which overall goal is not to make a monetary profit for the organisation / marketer; may include promoting or selling goods or services to support organisation, but profit is not primary; often includes same marketing mix, channels or tactics as for-profit marketers.

Cause or Nonprofit Marketing Matrix


When we talked about the funnel (above), we said that blockages can occur. People enter the funnel, but if they don’t get the attention they require, they leave without buying. This is why marketers “nurture” leads through the funnel.
Lead generation is now about “initiating and maintaining a relationship that leads the buyer to the best choice (i.e., your platform).”
We used to want to create one perfect interaction where the prospect would become a customer immediately. These days, people shop around – 96% of website visitors aren’t ready to buy. We need to nurture them through the funnel.
One key tool for nurturing leads is content.

  • Create specific content for each stage of the funnel
  • Include calls-to-action to direct leads to the next stage
  • Present “content upgrades” – natural follow-up content for people who liked the content
  • Use effective email marketing after publishing content
  • Retarget to leads who showed interest but didn’t buy

O Terms


A desired result to achieve by a particular time; usually broader than a goal, an objective can be broken into several more specific goals; there are organisational and marketing objectives.


In content marketing these do NOT have to mean things for sale, they can refer to high quality content that is ‘gated’ behind a password or requiring an email subscription entry in a form on a landing page. An offer might be for a checklist, worksheet, template, free webinar, ebook, free software, etc. It’s what you are ‘offering’ in exchange for something else (an email opt-in, small payment, trial).


The part of content or copy that comes after a headline. It should be compelling, engaging and entice the reader to keep moving down the page. Also known as an ‘introduction’ or ‘introductory paragraph’ [but is usually just 1-3 sentences].


When some material is restricted in access and requires the giving of contact info or a request to specifically receive the material; example, for email marketing someone must opt-in to the list /membership, showing they choose to receive your messages; See also, Lead Magnet, offering something to encourage someone to opt-in to receive an email newsletter (give an ebook, coupon, video, e-course, free event ticket).


Marketers use this term all the time. In common language, optimization means to get the most out of something. In digital marketing, it means to get the most out of content, landing pages, emails, apps, and ads. You want sky-high conversion rates across all of your marketing.
Adobe looked at what tactics lead to the highest conversion rates. The best companies:

  • Make decisions based on testing: 70% of Adobe’s top performers test to see what works and what doesn’t.
  • Allocate resources to optimisation: If you don’t devote any energy to optimisation, how can you expect to succeed at it?
  • Target content: Use automation and data to place targeted content in front of leads. When leads see content that suits them, they’re more likely to convert.
  • Collaborate across departments: Digital marketing is broad. Done well, it requires buy-in from content writers, developers, sales, and management.
  • Work well on mobile: Phone content is vital these days. 83% of Adobe’s top companies described mobile as important to their marketing work.

Organic Search Results

Listings in search engine results that were not paid for (similarly, Organic Traffic is that which comes to a site through individual’s searching on their own, clicking a link that is not sponsored, a paid ad, etc); appear ‘organic’ or ‘natural’ because results show in listings only based on standard algorithm of the search engine and ‘natural’ process of crawling and indexing sites  (not influenced by any payments).

P Terms


Simply when a business pays for an ad space on a social media platform to promote their business/service in the hope that it generates business. You can tailor adverts to certain demographics including location, interests and age bracket. Prices vary depending on your desired level of reach.


Avatars or ‘people types’, a collection of demographics, psychographics and attributes to describe some subgroup, particularly of your target audience / marketing; e.g. the particular collection of gender, age, salary level, education, leisure activities, family status and other definable behaviours that make up your ideal customer; use to focus your messages to the correct audience, to help segment and select media channels.

marketing build buyer user persona


How you want your organisation, brand or product to be perceived in the market relative to your competitors and alternative options in your key users / customers minds.

Power Words

Emotionally-charged words or phrases. Often used to set a scene, create a mental image, inspire, persuade or influence a reader.

There are positive and negative power words. Be careful not to overuse the negative ones.

Example power words for marketing:  agony, attention, eager, frantic, maximise, mind-blowing, survival, struggle, fooled, vulnerable, amazing, eye-opening, spectacular, delight, bargain, jackpot, proven, and guaranteed.


Your business or personal profile is where people can see everything that you share about yourself or your business. For example, how many people follow or like your page, what your business is about or where you are located.


Can have several meanings in marketing;

1) in the classic 4 Ps model and marketing mix, promotion techniques include advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations as ways to achieve specific marketing goals; 2) a type of advertising or communication that offers a special price, sale, discount, temporary change in price, new season, limited-time availability of goods or services, new product / service debut – the key is that this is limited in duration and different from ‘every day’ communication about the organisation, brand, product or service.


Attributes based on consumer behaviours, values, lifestyles or interests, not personal info; organisations can (and should) segment a market or target based on lifestyles or psychographic information for better results.

Q Terms


Making sure your content is relevant and of good quality can ensure you are attracting the right people and effects the amount of people you attract.


Quora is a social network with a very simple premise. Anyone can ask a question, and anyone else can answer it. The best questions and answers are featured more prominently, making quality content easy to find.
Oh, and it receives more than 100 million visitors per month.
Marketing on Quora is also very simple. If you, your content, or your product can solve a user’s problem, your Quora answers can drive real business results.
For example, take a question like “what are the best digital marketing tools?” We can answer that question and explain why Mention is a great choice. If the answer helps people and provides value it appears near the top of the thread.
By the way, that Quora question has been viewed more than 22,000 times. And it cost nothing to sing Mention’s praises there.
The best part is that Quora answers often rank highly on search engines. Since it’s a popular site, rich with backlinks and good content, Quora answers can even become the top-ranked result.
Quora ranks surprisingly high in Google results
SEMrush also recommends using Quora for market research and to fuel your content strategy. If you want to know what problems people have, just look at their Quora questions. This works for your industry as a whole, but it also shows you what problems people have with your products.
Like all social platforms, Quora is also a great place to find competitor insights. See what people like and don’t like about your competitors, and use that information to improve your own brand.

R Terms

Rate Card

Document or information detailing the prices for paid ad placement options in a publication

American Libraries magazine paid advertising rate card


The number of people or households exposed to a particular piece of paid advertising or media during a specific time period; reach is often given as a % of the total number of people in an audience, target market or geographic area.


Reddit is a social bookmarking site that calls itself “the front page of the internet.” Users share links to their favorite content and have detailed discussions.
It’s well-known for being a difficult marketing space. Simply taking an existing campaign and slapping it into a subreddit is a recipe for disaster. Many marketers simply stay away.
This makes Reddit fertile ground. Its potential reach is enormous, and it’s not flooded with advertising.
You can post content you have written yourself, and even products you are selling. Posts need to be:

  • In the right place. Get the subreddit right.
  • Interesting.
  • Timely. Old news is no good.
  • Original. It needs to be the first time this content has been posted on Reddit.

There’s an entire subreddit dedicated to exposing sneaky marketing on the site. Not only will innapropriate content not see clickthroughs, it’ll tarnish your brand’s image.

Relationship Marketing

Marketing designed to develop, manage and maintain long-term, trust-built relationships with users / customers, suppliers, distributors and others in the marketing cycle; often makes use of automation, social media and tools like CRM software or loyalty programs.


When responding to messages, queries or comments timing is key. The faster the response time the more the user experience improves. This is particularly true on Facebook, as response times on Facebook pages are shown to those that visit specific pages, therefore the more efficient, the better.

Responsive Web Design

Websites or website themes that automatically adjust to fit any device – from desktop to smartphone – and show content in way optimised for the device a visitor / viewer is using. The user experience should be seamless and not require adjustment from them to view / interact with content or navigation. Responsive web design has become a standard requirement.

If you can’t use or create a responsive web design, you need to consider a separate mobile website or app so your users can optimally view and use your site on a variety of devices.

Return On Investment (ROI)

Benefit to organisation from investing in a particular resource or action; a high ROI means you gain more than the action cost in terms of time, manpower, money; marketing ROI is often the contribution attributed to marketing divided by marketing costs or investment; e.g. if you invested £100 an you earned back £150 or its equivalent, your ROI is 50%.


An easy way to stay active on Twitter by sharing someone else’s Tweet, which would then appear in your own feed. It is also a good way to build relationships with other users as it shows engagement. You can also add your own thoughts on that specific Tweet to build your profile.

S Terms

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

Paid search result placements or ads; sometimes refers to all search-marketing activities, paid and organic search efforts.

explanation of search marketing paid search

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)

The idea of being able to ‘optimise content’ in order to gain more favourable placement in search results and ‘organic’ or natural traffic. At a basic level, it means making your content easy for a search engine to find and index – create useful content; appropriate titles, headlines and sub-heads; description tags; outgoing links. Search engine algorithms and ranking factors are always changing, there are lots of misconceptions, and there is NO way to guarantee result placement – but well-structured and described content can help.

Segmentation-figures 3d cartoon communicty connection teamwork multicolor network-1019778_1920



Dividing an entire geographic, behaviour, interest base or entire market into more specific, distinct subsets of potential customers / users / donors who are likely to have same interests, demographics, behaviours or needs; each segment might get its own marketing strategy or different plan and set of tactics or campaigns; segmentation reflects that not all users / customers / donors are alike and can’t be reached or engaged with exact same media or message; segmenting makes marketing more efficient and effective.


One of the main benefits of social media marketing is being able to easily share your brand message with a huge amount of people. Also, sharing your own and other users’ content such as recent news articles, is useful as it shows you are an active member and maintaining you and your brand’s knowledge with informative content.

Social Proof

Refers to the psychological phenomenon that people will take recommendations and advice from others on how to act or think in a situation, or what to do or buy. We are even likely to let the recommendations of strangers influence decisions over no recommendations. People tend to think, ‘if others are sharing something, it must be good’, or ‘if others are buying this item and it has lots of stars, it must be better.’

e.g. testimonials, quotes from other users or purchasers, case studies (even very short ones) with users /patrons, reviews (Amazon, GoodReads), the number of likes / clicks / retweets a piece of content has, seeing the logo of news organisations or well-known blogs on someone else’s site, number of followers / fans someone has.

marketing terms social proof examples

Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Tactics as part of an overall marketing strategy or plan that uses social media platforms to build interest, awareness of an organization or brand and to increase web traffic to the organisations site.

Split Testing (A/B Testing)

A method of using online tools or platforms to conduct a controlled test over marketing variables – such as email subject lines, website headers, opt-in offers, landing pages, variations in copy, the color +/or text on a Call to Action button, ads, etc.

Any time you pit two variations against each other and measure for clicks, completions, opt-ins, purchases or other desired action. Your base/original is the Control (A) and the version with slight variation is the Test (B).

Don’t change too much between A and B or you won’t know what caused a difference in action.


The statement, plan or essential structure for how your organisation aims to meet its marketing goals; strategy gives direction, purpose and helps make decisions on what tactics to use or not; strategy identifies the market, target audience, any subsegments, your brand positioning, your unique value statement, the specific goals and milestones to measure by, the specific marketing mix elements (or tactics) you will use and your budget (inc time and resources as well as money).

Style Guide(s)

A resource to document and standardised aspects of branding, communication, design and marketing by an organisation; style guides help when an organisation has multiple members involved in graphic design, content creation or creation of marketing materials to keep things consistent; it might include preferred abbreviations, spelling (is it ebook or e-book, “white paper” or “white-paper” or “whitepaper’), punctuation, or other grammar rules as well as how to use the logo, brand colours, brand fonts, image preferences, the corporate or organisational ‘vernacular’ or tone of voice; give visual examples of what to do, or not do.

example of style guide from MailChimp

Sub-headline (sub heads)

The smaller headlines through your content, dividing it into easier to read chunks or section. On a web page, these are often ‘header 2’, or ‘header 3’ or higher. Smaller font sizes and less emphasis than a headline, more than body text.

Good typography hierarchy headlines subheads

T Terms

T Shaped Marketers

The T-shaped marketer is one who has a broad but shallow understanding of all subjects, and a deep knowledge of two or three. This description of marketers is increasingly popular, due to constant changes in technology and expertise. Marketers need to roughly understand all of their team’s work, and be ready to lead in certain tasks.
You also have natural overlaps between roles. This means that while SEO may not be your strong suit, you at least understand the principles. If the PPC person is away, another team member can step in and do some light lifting.
In fact, these overlaps often breed creativity. “By having multiple overlapping T-shapes, a marketing team can invent and evolve remarkably unique and powerful solutions to problems.”


Also called a slogan, a brand line, catchphrase; a short set of memorable words or key phrase that sums up the main idea of your brand or a particular advertising campaign; really good taglines include a key benefit, help differentiate and give a positive feeling about the brand.

You can probably guess the companies / brands from these famous taglines:  “Just Do It”, “Think Different”, “Melt in your mouth, not in your hands”, “The uncola”, “Are you in good hands?”, “Don’t leave home without it”, “The ultimate driving machine”, “Like a rock”, “Because You’re Worth It”

Target Market (audience)

The individual (or group) with a set of attributes, demographics, psychographics who make up the intended viewers / recipients of a marketer’s messages. You can have more than one target, and each should receive their own customised set of messages – there is not a one size fits all approach. Dividing one’s target market or audience into smaller, even more relevant sections is called “segmentation.”


Written or video recommendation or referral from a happy, satisfied user / customer / donor; testimonials affirm the quality, value, customer service, performance of a product or service; powerful marketing tool because of the weight we give to evaluations from other customers and their experience.

library marketing testimonial examples public library


A video sharing app that is quickly growing in popularity and has great dominance in South East Asia. What makes it different to Instagram? It allows its users to add music and special effects to their 15 seconds videos before they share them. Tiktok was 2018’s most downloaded mobile apps for Apple and Android devices in the US and Europe.


When an idea or post starts to become increasingly more popular on social media it is known as trending. By linking your content to something that is trending, this can help your post to be seen by a wider audience.


An effective platform with 326 million active users comprising of a wide audience base, you can communicate with short messages (280 characters or less per Tweet). A fairly straight forward and simple format compared to other platforms, that can be used to re-share content from other users on to your feeds as well as create your own Tweets.

U Terms

Unique Visitors

Web measurement / analytic term; the number of visitors to a site, each counted only once, who visit a site over a 30 minute period as measured by your stats / analytics software.

User experience

“‘User experience’ encompasses all aspects of the end-user’s interaction with the company, its services, and its products.” In this section, we are really focusing on the things that marketers can control: content and web presence.
Grasping how web users interact with your content is important. You’ve got actions that you want users to perform, like click on advertising or request a demo. Your only goal might be repeat visitors.
Understanding user experience – and making changes – can be tricky for digital marketers.

  • Optimise images: Make images the right size to speed up site performance. Every moment a user waits for an oversized image, the more frustrated they become – at you.
  • Automate speed improvements: This one’s a little tricky. Speed up your site by “caching” parts of it. This means users don’t have to download the whole web page every time they visit.
  • Avoid stock photos: Let’s face it, stock photos are a little too good to be true. These days, web users can easily spot them, and a stock photo “instantly devalues your website.”
  • Protect your brand: Don’t sacrifice the look and feel of your site just because an A/B test told you that your ugliest buttons perform 1% better.. Focus on making people feel good about your site and your product.
  • Be clear: “[Visitors] should be able to understand what you do within a couple seconds of landing on your homepage.” Start with a clear sentence stating what you do. Users want answers to their questions, not mystery.
  • Well-placed CTAs: Keep your calls-to-action close to your most informative content. When users have found the information they need, they are most likely to follow-through and make a decision. You CTAs should reflect that.

User Generated Content (UGC)

Content created by your users, audience, fans and shared online (can be on your own site, system or platform or on a social platform, or shared to the library’s account on social media sites). UCG may be part of a promotion or contest, to offer personal experiences, for self-expression initiated by the users, to share or connect with other users. Make sure you work out ahead of time why you are collecting UGC and be sure to get permission and give credit to creators.


Your username is what you are known as on social media, whether that be your business name or your own personal name.  Your username is what people would search for when trying to find you.

V Terms

Video Marketing

Incorporating video based promotional content for a product or service into your marketing plans; videos of various types are created and uploaded online for sharing; videos for marketing are usually short, 2-5min or less and make use of popular video sharing sites and visual storytelling; videos are uploaded to 3rd party video sites to take advantage of their large traffic and search capabilities as well as ease of social sharing; don’t overlook hosting the videos on your own organisational site as well

e.g. user testimonials, demonstrations of products, screen-captures of online tools or software in action, animations, video of events, how-to videos, explainer videos, videos of staff, case study videos, behind-the-scenes videos.


When a photo, message or video has been trending around the world through social media it is known as viral.

Virtual reality / augmented reality (VR)

Virtual reality (VR) is all the rage. Demonstrations are appearing at digital marketing roadshows, and the technology is available to buy. The same is true of augmented reality (AR). This may be the tipping point.
Virtual reality: VR uses computers to build complete, physical environments for the user to enter and interact with. Think of headsets like Oculus Rift and Samsung’s Gear VR.
Augmented reality: According to a Harvard Business Review, AR gives users “the ability to overlay virtual content on the physical world and have the two interact in real time.” Think of Google Glass. The wearer can still see and hear the world as usual, but with extra information added via the lenses.
AR/VR could reach $150B in revenue by 2020, “with AR taking the lion’s share at around $120 billion.”
Augmented reality vs virtual reality as forecast by Digi-Capital
This is huge business, and marketers are frantically trying to grasp these technologies’ potential.
So why is augmented reality projected to make more money?

“Augmented reality technology, unlike virtual reality, is already well-suited for mass market adoption.”
Virtual reality is an immersive experience, whereas augmented reality takes the world we live in, and adds features.
Both of these technologies are intriguing for marketers. At SXSW 2016 McDonald’s created a buzz by letting users step inside a Happy Meal:
McDonald's creates virtual reality experiences as a digital marketing strategy
While undeniably exciting, it’s a little trickier to see the marketing applications for this sort of technology. An AR user can essentially go about their normal life (albeit augmented), but VR is best suited for gaming and viewing content.
Ikea already uses AR for marketing. Their digital catalogue lets you test furniture in your own living room, using your phone’s camera. It’s immediately clear why buyers will enjoy this feature.
Full of potential, these technologies promise to remain a major topic for marketers over the next few years.


Your digital voice is important when deciding how you want your audience to perceive your business. It is also imperative to be consistent with your voice when sharing your content, so your brand is identifiable. Too many voices and tones can be interpreted as unprofessional and lacking in communication between the organisation’s divisions.

Voiceover (v/o)

The voice of a person reading a script over a radio or TV ad, or over presentation slides turned into a video, or voice narrating or reading script while footage shows in a film or video

W Terms


A learning or training experience conducted using web-based software and often with visuals, presentations, videos and audience interaction components. Some webinars show the speaker in addition to slides or visuals, some allow audience to be seen as well, some have forms of audience interaction. Often used for teaching, training, panel presentations or presenting new products or services in a demonstration. Can be offered free or paid as a form of marketing and lead generation, a premium offering to membership, or way to reach a wider audience.


Your website is the place where people can learn about your business and having a good quality, responsive website makes it easier for people to contact you. You will want a lot of your marketing efforts to drive your audience to your site, to increase the likelihood of sales.


Shorter than an e-book; well-written, researched paper, guide or report to address a problem and present solutions – often with the writer / organisations product or service featured as one of those solutions. May also present recent research and statistics in text and graphical form. Often seen in a business-to-business (B2B) marketing or sales scenario – as white papers can be technical, serious and slightly academic in tone.


Web term, a small piece of software built into site or interface to give additional, discrete function, personalisation or added content, particularly in sidebars or footers of content management systems like WordPress, Drupal, etc.; e.g. displays latest tweets, shows local weather, add an RSS feed

Word of Mouth (WOM)

The act of sharing news, communications, recommendations or referrals of a product or service by informal oral or written communication, from a satisfied customer / client / user to a prospective user / customer of that brand / good / service.

woman tin can talking word of mouth marketing term

“Sharing is caring!” and good Word of Mouth marketing

X Terms

X Generation

People who are of the ‘Generation X’ are usually born between 1965 to the early 80’s. Knowing your target audience will allow you to tailor your content accordingly.

Xml Sitemap (eXtensible Markup Language sitemap)

Website term for file with all the URLs on your site, like a map that helps search engines to crawl your site more intelligently. There are plugins that can help create an XML sitemap.

Y Terms


As in marketing messages need to say ‘you’ and talk directly to your audience, your users, your patrons. The message needs to be about them.

kids celebrate computer coding in library


YouTube is hardly a secret. Forty-six thousand years’ worth of video is watched every day on the site, and it’s made stars out of Justin Bieber, PewDiePie, and Psy.
But not every digital marketer is using Youtube. This may be a mistake. Video is the future of content marketing, and YouTube is its leader. According to Moz, “if your customers, or the influencers of your customers are watching videos on YouTube related to your industry, then you should have a YouTube channel.”

Make great videos

The key to great YouTube content is storytelling. Brand Stories found that the best YouTube marketing is:

  • Authentic: real is better than glossy.
  • Relevant: to your products and your audience.
  • Collaborative: work with influencers to increase exposure.
  • Engaging: make interesting videos full of calls to action. Ask for comments and shares.
  • Regular: consistently create quality videos, on a regular basis.

YouTube, the video sharing platform is hugely useful for both learning and entertainment – watching tutorials from how best to apply eyeliner or sharing highlights about your week, it’s a strongly performing platform as 65% of the population are visual learners.

Z Terms

Z generation

People born between 1995 to 2015 are part of ‘Gen Z’, the generation after Millennials. Snapchat is the most greatly used platform for this audience and should be considered for your marketing activities, should this be your target demographic.

Zero Cost Strategy

A decision or tactic that doesn’t have any monetary costs or expenses when you execute it; many guerilla marketing tactics are ‘zero cost’;

e.g. you can improve perception and prospect of selling a home if you declutter the main rooms by packing excess stuff into boxes and putting the boxes in the garage or basement ; e.g. cross-promotion – you reach out to a local business that also serves mom + dads of early readers and offer to put their brochures at the front desk of your library or near storytime space, and they agree to post flyers, schedule of storytime hours and mention to their clients.

coins illustrate zero cost library marketing term